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The Second International Conference on Long Term Behaviour of Dams (LTBD09)

12th-13th October 2009, Graz, Austria.


Erich Bauer
Institute of Applied Mechanics
Graz University of Technology

Stephan Semprich
Institute of Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering
Graz University of Technology

Gerald Zenz
Institute of Hydraulic Engineering and Water Resources Management Graz University of Technology

ISBN: 978-3-85125-070-1
ผศ.ดร.สุทธิศักดิ์ ศรลัมพ์ และนายชิโนรส ทองธรรมชาติ (นิสิตระดับปริญญาเอก) ได้เข้าร่วมงานและนำเสนอผลงานวิจัยในการประชุมนี้


The Second International Conference on Long Term Behaviour of Dams, LTBD09, takes place at Graz University of Technology, Austria from October 12 to 13, 2009. The city of Graz, where the campus of the University of Technology is located, was the European Capital of Culture of the year 2003. The impressive Old Town belongs to the best preserved in Europe and is on the UNESCO list of World Culture Heritages. Graz has four universities with about 40,000 students. One of them is Graz University of Technology, a long-established institution of scientific research and teaching in Austria, which covers the areas of engineering sciences and technical natural sciences.
The Conference LTBD09 is the second international conference based on the scientific and technical co-operation between Graz University of Technology (Graz, Austria), Vienna University of Technology (Vienna, Austria), the University of Innsbruck (Innsbruck, Austria), Hohai University (Nanjing, China) and Tsinghua University (Beijing, China) and it is jointly organized by these five universities. The First International Conference was launched at Hohai University in 2008 with the main aim of encouraging an exchange of views between engineers, scientists and operators on various aspects related to the long term behaviour of dams. Encouraged by the success of the First Conference the Second Conference aimed to provide another excellent opportunity to present and exchange experiences and the latest developments related to the design, performance and rehabilitation of earth dams, rockfill dams and concrete dams including roller compacted and conventional concrete dams. The high number of abstracts submitted for the conference clearly shows that this goal has been achieved. The papers included in these proceedings have been peer-reviewed and selected for presentation at LTBD09. The contributions are divided into the following five topic areas:

Methods of Design and Analysis of Dams

Dam Monitoring and Instrumentation

Properties of Construction Materials for Dams and their Constitutive Modelling

Seismic Aspects and Earthquake Analysis

Dam Safety Assessment, Maintenance, Rehabilitation and Heightening

On behalf of the Organizing Committee I would like to express our profound gratitude to those who assumed the Auspices over the conference as well as to the members of the International Advisory Committee and the supporting organizations. I am indebted to the co-chairs of the Organizing Committee, the chairmen and co-chairmen of the sessions, the sponsors and all other colleagues for their support. My sincere gratitude goes to Graz University of Technology, and in particular to Rector Hans Sünkel, for providing an excellent scientific environment. I am grateful for the support of Christine Vitas, Karin Bauer and Harald Breinhälter from the conference office. Finally I would like to thank all the conference participants for their interest in the conference and their scientific contributions.

Erich Bauer
Conference Chairman



Keynote Papers
Behaviour of Materials for Earth and Rockfill Dams: Perspective from Unsaturated Soil Mechanics
Eduardo Alonso, R. Cardoso
Predicting the Long Term Behaviour and Service Life of Concrete Dams
Robin Charlwood
Internal Erosion : The Main Ageing Phenomena of Hydraulic Structures
Jean-Jacques Fry
Several Issues to be considered for the Long-term better Behavior of Concrete Dams
Jinsheng Jia
A general Framework for Modelling Long Term Behaviour of Earth and Concrete Dams
Bernhard Schrefler, Francesco Pesavento, Lorenzo Sanavia, Stefano Secchi, Luciano Simoni
Humidity Diffusion and Rheology in Rock
Chunan Tang, Shibin Tang
The Many Features of the Seismic Hazard in Large Dam Projects and Strong Motion Monitoring of Large Dams
Martin Wieland
Modeling of Thermomechanical Behaviour of Embankment Dams; One-component vs. Multicomponent Description
Krzysztof Wilmanski
Design and Analysis of Concrete Dams

Gerald Zenz


Topic A - Methods of Design and Analysis of Dams
Geosynthetic Systems for Earth Dams - 35 Years of Experience
Olivier Artières, Klaus Oberreiter, Franz Aschauer
An Evaluation and Comparison of Rock-Fill Dam Behavior with Instrumentation Data during First Impounding
Jafar Bolouri Bazaz, A. Khadem, K. Khajavi
Hydro-Mechanical Numerical Analyses of Rock Mass Behavior under a Swedish Embankment Hydropower Dam
Alexander Bondarchuk, Maria Ask, Lars-Olof Dahlström, Erling Nordlund, Sven Knutsson
Damages and Risk Assessment of Thana Dam in Lushnja Area, Albania
Luljeta Bozo, Ylber Muceku
Stress-dependent Permeability in the Foundation of Alqueva Dam
Maria Luísa Braga Farinha, José Vieira Lemos
Analysis of Composite Geomembrane for Impermeability Enhancement of High Rockfill Dams
Weijun Cen, Changsong Shen, Ganchen Gu
Long Term Behavior Analysis of Small Dams in Zhejiang, China
Bin Chen, Xiao-dong Chen, Chen-cheng Du, Jia-ning Wu
Analysis of Irreversible Displacements of Daniel-Johnson Dam
Luc Chouinard, Patrice Côté, Richard Larivière
Performance of Statistical Models for Analyzing the Long Term Behaviour of Dams
Luc Chouinard, Vincent Roy
Treatment by Vibrocompaction of Liquefiable Soils of the Dam Foundation
Mohamed Ridha El Ouni, Hichem Hamdi
Establishing Long Term Seepage Behavior of Zoned Embankment Dams with Three-Dimensional Seepage Analysis
Farzad Ferdos, Fardin Jafarzadeh
Face Slab Response of Concrete Faced Rockfill Dam considering Dam-Supports Interaction and the Hydrostatic Effect of Reservoir
Behzad Ghadimi, S.Mohsen Haeri
Stability of Plinth Blocks in Concrete Face Rockfill Dams
Zeinab Ghannad
Lateritic Soils for Dam Foundations and Dam Cores -Two Case Studies and Their Typical Properties
Ronald Haselsteiner, Hans-Georg Schuetz, Cristian Osan, Björn Somdalen
Willow Creek Dam - A Look Back
James K. Hinds
Comparison of Solution Methods for Return Mapping Algorithms
Matthias Hofmann, Bernhard Valentini, Günter Hofstetter
Chamber of Valves in the Arenoso Reservoir
Carlos Jurado
System Identification of Concrete Gravity Dams using Artificial Neural Networks
Iman Karimi, Naser Khaji
Evaluation Method of Dam Behavior during Construction and Reservoir Filling
Yuji Kohgo, Akira Takahashi, Tomokazu Suzuki
Analysis and Monitoring of Tsankov Kamak Arch Dam
Roman Kohler, Gerald Zenz
Development of Pipelines for High Operating Pressures
Hermann Lehar, Yvonne Theiner, Gerhard Niederwanger, Günter Hofstetter
Effect of Bulk Modulus of Air-Water Mixture on Excess Pore Water Pressure Development and its History in Clay Core Embankment Dam
Reza Mahin Roosta, Anahita Ghazizade
Long-term Stability Considerations of Water Storage Reservoirs for Snow-making Systems in the Alps
Thomas Marcher, Hans Georg Wechsler, Alexander Speckle
From Investigation through Monitoring to the Slope Stability
Marian Minarik, Tibor Meszaros
Horizontal Filter Blanket Effects on Two Dimensional Seepage Analysis of Isotropic and None Isotropic Earth Dams
Reza Movahed Asl, M. Marandi, M. Bagheripour
Reliability Analysis of Earth Dams: Case of El Houareb Dam - Kairoun - Tunisia
Zouhair Mrabet, Mohamed Ridha El Ouni, Khaled Kheder
Honey Bee Mating Optimization (HBMO) Implementation in Concrete Gravity Dam Layout Optimization
Vahid Nourani, Amin Mohebbi, Saeid Bazzazian Bonab, Mina Nabi
Verification of Safety Against Piping as Specified in the Code of Practice - Stability of Embankments for Inland Waterways (MSD 2005)
Bernhard Odenwald, Charlotte Laursen
Analysis of Arch Dam Deformations
Franz Perner, Pius Obernhuber
Stability of Basal Reinforced Embankment on Soft Foundation Soil Considering Oblique Pull
Kondala Ramu, Madhira R. Madhav, V. Kalyana Chakravarthi
Analytical Model for Constriction Size Distributions of Granular Materials
Nadège Reboul, Eric Vincens, Bernard Cambou
Study on the Ultimate Load of Gravity Dam based on Catastrophe Models
Qingwen Ren, Jing Wu
The Monitoring Programme at the Merowe Dam in the Sudan - From Implementation to Evaluation
Yannick Scheid, Ahmed Eltayeb, Holger Rosenkranz, R. Peter Brenner
Construction of the First Cut-off Wall by a Low Headroom Trench Cutter inside a Tunnel in China
Manfred Schöpf, Athur Bi, William Chang, D. F. Zong
Construction of a Lightweight-Dam on Organic Soils - Design and Monitoring
Hartmut Schuller
Deep Cut-Off Walls Constructed under Dams with Trench Cutters
Wolfgang Schwarz, Karsten Beckhaus, Stefan Schmitz
Optimal Design of Earthen Dams Using Pattern Matching by Artificial Neural Networks
Raj Mohan Singh
Influence of Soft Rock-Fill Material as Dam Embankment with a Central Bituminous Concrete Membrane
Peter Tschernutter
Comprehensive Applications of Different Methods to Geological Inspection of Dam Foundations
Jun-cai Xu, Yue-ming Zhu
Application of Block-Group Method to Arch Dam Abutment Stability Analysis
Zixin Zhang, Ying Xu, Xin Huang
Modeling of Arch Dam-Foundation Interaction Based on Damping Solvent Extraction Method

Hong Zhong, Gao Lin, Hongjun Li, Jianbo Li, Bing Fu


Topic B - Dam Monitoring and Instrumentation
Post Construction Deformations of Modern Greek Rockfill Dams
Konstantinos Anastasopoulos, George Dounias, Christos Oikonomidis, Zacharoula-Rea Papachatzaki, Sophia Siachou
Geophysics and Statistics by Solving Seepages on Dams
Emilia Bednarova, Danka Gramblickova, Jan Tkac
Surveillance of Dike Ageing by Distributed Temperature Measurement along a Fiber Optic
Pierre Cunat, Yves-Laurent Beck, Jean-Jacques Fry, Jean-Robert Courivaud, Jean-Paul Fabre, Yves-Henri Faure
Foundation and Embankment Settlement Monitoring in Alavian Dam
Ebrahim Ebrahimnezhad Sadiq, Mohammad Ali Mojtahedi, Rana Noori Asl
Exploitation of Monitoring Results to Adapt the Operation of Dams to their Behaviour
Jean-Paul Fabre, Remy Huber
Long Term Deformability of the Kalltal Dam (Germany)
Konrad Gell, Walter Dautzenberg
Pore Pressure and Total Stress Measurements at the Slezska Harta Dam
Frantisek Glac, Jaromir Riha
Tolt Dam Monitoring and Failure Warning System
Daniel Huang
Long Term Deformation of Zillergründl Rock Foundation
Sven Jacobs, Andreas Blauhut, Peter Schöberl
GNSS/LPS/LS based Online Control and Alarm System (GOCA) - Mathematical Models and Technical Realization of a Scalable System for Natural and Geotechnical Deformation Monitoring and Analysis -
Reiner Jäger, Andreas Hoscislawski, Manuel Oswald
Industry Leading Satellite based GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) Positioning and Monitoring Solutions for Dam and Landslide Monitoring, Reservoir and Levee Management - Trimble Integrity Manager Software
Martin Janousek, Paul Drummond
A new Approach for Large Structures Monitoring: Scansites 3D
Herve Lancon, Dominique Reith, Sebastien Piot
The Long-Term Behaviour of a Run-Of-River Scheme in Latvia
Sophie Messerklinger, R. Peter Brenner, Sigita Dišlere, Zoja Zegele
Experience from Long Term Monitoring of Dam’s "Shpilje", "Globochica" and "Tikvesh"
Slavko Milevski, Nestor Angelovski
The Investigation of Extra Seepage of Gheisaragh Dam and Remedial Method
Golam Moradi, Alir Rza Abbasnejad, Hamed Farshbaf Aghajani
Evaluating GNSS Based Structural Monitoring Options in a Real- Time Network Environment

Gavin Schrock


Topic C - Properties of Construction Materials for Dams and their Constitutive Modelling
Compaction and Control of Earth Fill & Rock Fill Dams
Dietmar Adam
Thermodynamic Modelling of Soil Morphology
Bettina Albers, Krzysztof Wilmanski
Three-dimensional Interaction between Concrete Gravity Dam and Foundation Rock Mass in Presence of Coupling with Seepage
Carlo Callari
A Damage Model for Long Term Degradation in Concrete Dams
Claudia Comi, Umberto Perego
Thermo-Mechanical Coupling for Localized Damage and Plasticity Evaluation of Geomaterials
Mehrdad Emami, Minh P. Luong
Anisotropic Strength Behavior of Schistose Rocks
Nooshin Falaknaz
Study of Thermal Effects occurring in a Concrete Arch Dam during its Construction
Antonella Frigerio, Francesco Chillé, Guido Mazzà;
Hypoplastic Constitutive Modelling of the Long Term Behaviour and Wetting Deformation of Weathered Granular Materials
Zhongzhi Fu, Erich Bauer
Assessing the Critical Seepage Velocity Causing Transport of Fine Particles in Embankment Dams and Their Foundation
Matthias Goltz, Thomas Etzer, Markus Aufleger, Peter Muckenthaler
A new Method to Evaluate the Mechanical Behaviour of Granular Material with Large Particles: Theory and Validation
Wei Hu, Etienne Frossard, Pierre-Yves Hicher, Christophe Dano
Improvement of a Hypoplastic Model for Granular Materials under General Stress Condition
Wenxiong Huang
A new Elastic Viscoplastic Soil Model that takes into Account of the Non-linear Nature of Creep
Md Rajibul Karim, Carthigesu T. Gnanendran
Reactive Transport in Granular Media: Modeling the Erosion
Tony Khalil, Bogdan Muresan, Nadia Saiyouri, Pierre-Yves Hicher
Use of an In-situ Direct Shear Device on Compacted Rockfill Materials
Sihong Liu, Zhengwen Chen
Dissolutional Widening of Fractures during Life Time of Dams. A Case of Steady Leakage 32 Years after the First Reservoir Filling
Farhad Nokhostin
Coupled Numerical Analysis of an Embankment Dam
Michael Pertl, Matthias Hofmann, Günter Hofstetter
Damage-Chemo-Viscoelastic Model on the Analysis of Concrete Dams under Swelling Processes
José Piteira Gomes, António Lopes Batista, Sérgio Oliveira
Bidimensional Discrete Element Simulations of Ageing Effects in Rockfill Dams
Jean-Patrick Plassiard, Jean-Jacques Fry, Fabian Dedecker
Analysis of Rainfall Infiltration Process Considering Influence of Pore Gas Pressure
Dongmei Sun, Ping Feng, Mingjin Zhang
The Experimental Research on the Composite Geo-membrane in the Three Gorges Dam
Kaichang Sun, Kun Li, Zhiyu Sun
Waterstop Technology for the 21st Century
Stephen Tatro, William Harrison
The Mechanized Pinhole Test for Identifying Dispersive Soils for Earthfill Dams
Hasan Tosun, Hasan Savas
Time-dependent Deformation Behaviour of Soft Rocks
Wei Wang, Liang Quan Li, Wei Ya Xu
Experimental Study on the Time-Dependent Behaviour of Xiangjiaba Sandstone
Wei Wang, Wei Ya Xu, Liang Quan Li, Yu Zhou Jiang
Alkali Activity of Granite Aggregates and Control in the Concrete of the Three Gorges Project
Zaiqin Wang, Liang Xiao, Zhen Li
Long Term Behavior of Alkali Reactive Aggregates in Danjiangkou Dam
Zaiqin Wang, Ruiwen Zhang, Zhen Li
Study on the AAR and the Inhibition Measures in Large Hydropower Project in China
Shiyong Wu, Jian Wang, Peng Gao
Research on Seepage Characteristics and Methods for Control of Seepage of Gravely Soil Core Wall Rockfill Dams on Thick Overburden Foundations
Jun Yan, Xide Zhou, Yulian Tang, Xiaoyue Zhang
New Approach for the Prediction of the Rheology of the Roller Compacted Concrete (RCC) for Dams
Mustapha Zdiri, Nor-edine Abriak, Mongi Ben Ouezdou, Jamel Neji
Compaction and Compactness of the Roller Compacted Concrete (RCC) for Dams
Mustapha Zdiri, Nor-edine Abriak, Mongi Ben Ouezdou, Jamel Neji
Back Analysis of Temperature in Period of Construction and Long-term Effect on Anti-cracking of RCC Gravity Dams

Yun-liang Zhao, Yue-ming Zhu, Pu Xu


Topic D - Seismic Aspects and Earthquake Analysis
Modeling the Acoustic Elements of Water for Dynamic Analysis of Arch Dams
Ramin Amini, Ahmad Ahmadi
Numerical Investigation into the Liquefaction Potential and Seismic Performance of Tendaho Earth Fill Dam, Ethiopia
Gebremedhin Berhe Tensay , Wei Wu
Simulation of Earthquake Ground Motions with Seismic Characteristics of the Sites
Chengbin Du, Zhiming Liu
Numerical Modeling of the Seismic Response of an Earth Dam Founded on Liquefiable Soils
Babak Ebrahimian
Numerical Analysis of Non-linear Dynamic Behavior of Earth Dams
Babak Ebrahimian
Class A prediction of the dynamic behaviour of the San Pietro Dam
Gaetano Elia, Angelo Amorosi
Effects of Canyon Parameters on Scattering of Rayleigh Waves
Behzad Ghadimi, S.Mohsen Haeri
Prediction Method for the Deformation of Small Irrigation Dams Induced by Liquefaction
Yoichi Hayashida, Fusao Oka, Susumu Masukawa, Isamu Asano, Hidekazu Tagashira
Earthquake Response of Golestan Earth Dam (Iran) Considering Dam-Foundation Interaction
Morteza Jiryaei Sharahi, Seyed Razi Anisheh, Alireza Tabarsa
Effect of Topographic Site Conditions on Seismic Response of Dams - 2D Numerical Parametric Study on Trapezoidal Valley
Hamed Khodadadi Tirkolaei, Morteza Jiryaei Sharahi
Changes of Liquefaction Potential in the Alluvial Foundation after Embankment Dam Construction and Impounding
Reza Mahin Roosta, Reza Naghiloo
Dynamic Response of an Asphaltic Concrete Core Embankment Dam considering Core and Filter Interaction
Reza Mahin Roosta, Farhad Ravasani Asl
Seismic Improvement of Liquefiable Alluvial Foundation of Earth Dams by Vibro Replacement
Hamid Reza Paseh, Mahmoud Yazdani, Reza Mahin Roosta
On the Definition of Acceptable Levels of Seismic Risk for Dam Design
Luis Fernando Restrepo-Vélez
Performance of Earth Dams under Seismic Effects Assessed by Shaking Table Tests
Seda Sendir Torisu, Junichi Sato, Ikuo Towhata
Performance of Earth Dams under Seismic Effects Assessed by Hollow Cylindrical Torsional Shear Tests
Seda Sendir Torisu, Ikuo Towhata
Estimation of Permanent Deformations of a High Dam Due to Earthquakes
Aniruddha Sengupta
Seismic Analysis of the Camastra Dam (Italy)
Stefania Sica, Luca Pagano
Seismic Stability of Concrete-Faced Rockfill Dam and a Case Study
Hasan Tosun, Keziban Tosun, Euren Seyrek
Seismic Response and Soil Liquefaction Triggering Analysis for Earth Embankment Dams: A Case Study
Berna Unutmaz, H. Tolga Bilge, K. Onder Cetin
Numerical Simulation of Seismic Damage of an Arch Dam with Contraction Joints

Hong Zhong, Gao Lin, Zhiqiang Hu


Topic E - Dam Safety Assessment, Maintenance, Rehabilitation and Heightening
Monitoring and Numerical Estimation of Seepage Process in Sangtudfinskaya Embankment Dam and Foundation
Irina Belkova, Vyacheslav Glagovskiy
Investigations of the Material of a 50 Years old Dam in the Course of the Deepened Examination
Volker Bettzieche, Andreas Bieberstein
The Influence of Longterm Flood Increases on Safe Design of Plunge Pools
Erik Bollaert
A simple Method to Estimate Inundation due to Dam Break
Antje Bornschein
Reassessment of Dam Foundation Stability - the Case of Three Swiss Dams
Cane Cekerevac, Alexandre Wohnlich
Impact of Sidi Salem Dam Heightening on Management Rules and on Downstream Inundation
Mohamed Djebbi
Diagnosis and Remedies to the Messes of the Spillway of Sidi Saâd Dam
Mohamed Djebbi
Long Term Behavior and Safety Assessment of Sance Rockfill Dam
Marta Dolezalova, Ivo Hladik, Vlasta Zemanova
Statistical Correlation between Dam Instrumentation Time Series and External Temperature - Case Study: Itaipu Dam Direct Pendulum
Andrea Dyminski, Maiko Buzzi, Anselmo Chaves Neto, Eduardo Parente Ribeiro, Ademar Fiorini
Estimation of Possible Residual Risks for the Long-term Safety of Dams
Saqib Ehsan, Walter Marx, Silke Wieprecht
Relation between Rockslide Dam and Valley Morphology and its Impact on Rockslide Dam Longevity and Control on Potential Breach Development based on Examples from Norway and the Andes
Reginald L. Hermanns, Lars H. Blikra, Oddvar Longva
Reliability Analysis of River Embankments using Logistic Regression
Torsten Heyer, Hans-Burkhard Horlacher, Jürgen Stamm
Rehabilitation of Kurit Historical Dam
Ali Mohammad Hossein Nezhad, Yashar Aliyari
Safety Evaluation of Xiaowan Arch Dam based on Engineering Analogical Method
Wei Hu, Feng Jin, Jinting Wang
Surveillance and Monitoring of EDF Dams
Remy Huber
Stability Assessment of Jointed Rock Abutments of Concrete Arch Dam Using Destines Element Method
Hamid Khanmohammadi, Mahmoud Yazdani, Parviz Maarefvand
Rehabilitation of Ulley Reservoir: Assessment of the Integrity of an Embankment Dam
Rachel King, Rob Gilbert, Jim Claydon, David Crook, David Phillips
Finite element analysis of Ladybower Dam: long term operation and dam heightening
Nebojsa Kovacevic, Peter Vaughan, David Potts
Relief Wells at Durlassboden Dam
Alois Leobacher
Damage Potential of an Upstream-Side Crack in a Gravity Dam Subjected to an Impact Loading in the Reservoir
Herbert Linsbauer
A Probabilistic and Transient Finite Element Analysis of River Embankment Stability
Axel Moellmann, Pieter A. Vermeer, Maximilian Huber
Rehabilitation and Heightening (Lifting) of Asphalttic Concrete Surfaced Dams and Reservoirs
Priska Müller
The Dam Classification in Albania
Niko Naska
Assessment of the Long Term Behaviour of the Bolgenach Dam
Elmar Netzer, Guntram Innerhofer jun.
Investigation Procedures and Surveillance to Support Risk Minimalization against Reservoir Failure Caused by Aging - a Case History
Fritz Neuschitzer, Kurt Klima, Andreas Gaich
Origin, Duration and Reclamation of Natural Dams
Tanja Roje-Bonacci
Factors Affecting Rapid Drawdown in Embankment Dams
Jamshid Sadrkarimi, Fariba Behrooz Sarand
Rehabilitataion of Salza Dam
Peter Schöberl
Geomembrane Systems for Repair of Dams in Cold Climates
Alberto Maria Giovanni Scuero, Gabriella Vaschetti
30 Years Instrumentation Behavior of Srinagarind Dam and Analysis of Warning Criteria
Suttisak Soralump, Chinoros Thongthamchart, Veerachai Chaisakaew
Reliability Based Selection Criteria for Granular Filters
Amit Srivastava, G. L. Sivakumar Babu
Long-Term Behaviour of Tikvesh Dam
Ljubomir Tancev, Slavko Milevski
Dam Failures in the Sight of Long Term Behaviour - Lessons Learnt
Alexius Vogel
Long Term Stability of the South Fork Tolt River Dam
Shuying Wang, Ronaldo Luna, Daniel Huang
Assessment of Long-Term Behaviour of Ataturk Dam Based on Elasto-Plastic Analysis: Comparison of Effective and Total Stress Approaches for Clay Core
Martin Wieland, Sujan Malla
Grouting at the Base of the Dam Silvretta
Friedrich Winkler, Martin Lenzi